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年份:
  • 2016

    Luo J, Yang Z, Ma Y, et al. LGR4 is a receptor for RANKL and negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption[J]. Nature Medicine, 2016, 22(5): 539-546.

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11, also known as RANKL) regulates multiple physiological or pathological functions, including osteoclast differentiation and osteoporosis. TNFRSF11A (also called RANK) is considered to be the sole receptor for RANKL. Herein we report that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4, also called GPR48) is another receptor for RANKL. LGR4 competes with RANK to bind RANKL and suppresses canonical RANK signaling during osteoclast differentiation. RANKL binding to LGR4 activates the Gαq and GSK3-β signaling pathway, an action that suppresses the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATC1) during osteoclastogenesis. Both whole-body (Lgr4-/-) and monocyte conditional knockout mice of Lgr4 (Lgr4 CKO) exhibit osteoclast hyperactivation (including elevation of osteoclast number, surface area, and size) and increased bone erosion. The soluble LGR4 extracellular domain (ECD) binds RANKL and inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vivo. Moreover, LGR4-ECD therapeutically abrogated RANKL-induced bone loss in three mouse models of osteoporosis. Therefore, LGR4 acts as a second RANKL receptor that negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.
  • 2016

    He Y, Peng S, Wang J, et al. Ailanthone targets p23 to overcome MDV3100 resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer[J]. Nature Communications, 2016, 7(1).

    Androgen receptor (AR) antagonist MDV3100 is the first therapeutic approach in treating castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), but tumours frequently become drug resistant via multiple mechanisms including AR amplification and mutation. Here we identify the small molecule Ailanthone (AIL) as a potent inhibitor of both full-length AR (AR-FL) and constitutively active truncated AR splice variants (AR-Vs). AIL binds to the co-chaperone protein p23 and prevents AR's interaction with HSP90, thus resulting in the disruption of the AR-chaperone complex followed by ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation of AR as well as other p23 clients including AKT and Cdk4, and downregulates AR and its target genes in PCa cell lines and orthotopic animal tumours. In addition, AIL blocks tumour growth and metastasis of CRPC. Finally, AIL possesses favourable drug-like properties such as good bioavailability, high solubility, lack of CYP inhibition and low hepatotoxicity. In general, AIL is a potential candidate for the treatment of CRPC.
  • 2016

    Guan Y, Ma Y, Li Q, et al. CRISPR/Cas9‐mediated somatic correction of a novel coagulator factor IX gene mutation ameliorates hemophilia in mouse[J]. Embo Molecular Medicine, 2016, 8(5): 477-488.

    The X-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of coagulator factor IX, hemophilia B, is a disease ideally suited for gene therapy with genome editing technology. Here, we identify a family with hemophilia B carrying a novel mutation, Y371D, in the human F9 gene. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to generate distinct genetically modified mouse models and confirmed that the novel Y371D mutation resulted in a more severe hemophilia B phenotype than the previously identified Y371S mutation. To develop therapeutic strategies targeting this mutation, we subsequently compared naked DNA constructs versus adenoviral vectors to deliver Cas9 components targeting the F9 Y371D mutation in adult mice. After treatment, hemophilia B mice receiving naked DNA constructs exhibited correction of over 0.56% of F9 alleles in hepatocytes, which was sufficient to restore hemostasis. In contrast, the adenoviral delivery system resulted in a higher corrective efficiency but no therapeutic effects due to severe hepatic toxicity. Our studies suggest that CRISPR/Cas-mediated in situ genome editing could be a feasible therapeutic strategy for human hereditary diseases, although an efficient and clinically relevant delivery system is required for further clinical studies.
  • 2016

    Wang J, Hu K, Guo J, et al. Suppression of KRas-mutant cancer through the combined inhibition of KRAS with PLK1 and ROCK[J]. Nature Communications, 2016, 7(1): 11363-11363.

    No effective targeted therapies exist for cancers with somatic KRAS mutations. Here we develop a synthetic lethal chemical screen in isogenic KRAS-mutant and wild-type cells to identify clinical drug pairs. Our results show that dual inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) leads to the synergistic effects in KRAS-mutant cancers. Microarray analysis reveals that this combinatory inhibition significantly increases transcription and activity of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1, leading to specific G2/M phase blockade in KRAS-mutant cells. Overexpression of p21WAF1/CIP1, either by cDNA transfection or clinical drugs, preferentially impairs the growth of KRAS-mutant cells, suggesting a druggable synthetic lethal interaction between KRAS and p21WAF1/CIP1. Co-administration of BI-2536 and fasudil either in the LSL-KRASG12D mouse model or in a patient tumour explant mouse model of KRAS-mutant lung cancer suppresses tumour growth and significantly prolongs mouse survival, suggesting a strong synergy in vivo and a potential avenue for therapeutic treatment of KRAS-mutant cancers.
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